Blood Glucose Level

Diabetes is a disease in which levels of blood glucose are above normal. Insulin, which is a pancreatic hormone, helps convert blood glucose into energy. High blood glucose (hyperglycemia) occurs because the pancreas make insufficient insulin or the muscles, liver, and fat cells do not respond to insulin properly. Therefore, the cells are still lack of energy even there is elevated blood glucose levels. Hyperglycemia damages nerves and blood vessels, and bring health complications such as heart disease, stroke, kidney disease, blindness, nerve problems, gum infections, and amputation.

Common Types of Diabetes:

Type 1
Diabetes is usually first diagnosed in children, teenagers, and young adults. It occurs as the pancreas no longer makes insulin because the beta cells (insulin-producing cells)has been attacked and destroyed by the immune system.

Type 2
Diabetes is the most common form diabetes and can be developed at any age. It begins with insulin resistance when muscle, liver, and fat cells do not respond to insulin properly. Initially, the secretion of insulin is still able to cope with the increasing demand. However, the pancreas loses its ability to secrete enough insulin in response to meals gradually.

A fasting plasma glucose (FPG) test measures blood glucose in a person who has fast for at least 8 hours which is used to detect diabetes and pre-diabetes. The standards are as below:

Glucose Level

Indication

70-99 mg/dL

3.9 -5.5 mmol/L

Normal fasting glucose

100-125 mg/dL

5.6 -6.9 mmol/L

Impaired fasting glucose (pre-diabetes)

≥126 mg/dL

≥7.0 mmol/L

Diabetes

(Source:National Diabetes Information Clearing House(NDIC) http://diabetes.niddk.nih.gov/dm/pubs/overview/index.htm)

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